NZSTI Conference June 2020


Below are some of the talks you can look forward to at the 2023 NZSTI Conference.


KEYNOTE Presentation

The Role of Professional Interpreting Services in Successful Re-Settlement

Fiona Whiteridge and Johnathon Hopgood


Fiona Whiteridge, General Manager of Refugee and Migrant Services in Immigration New Zealand will present an overview of refugee and migrant services and discuss the critically important role that professional interpreters play in supporting successful re-settlement of former refugees and migrants. Ensuring effective communication between former refugees and migrants and government service providers is key to successful re-settlement and supports former refugees and migrants having their unique needs and cultures well understood by those charged with supporting them.

Following Fiona’s presentation Johnathon Hopgood, Manager of Refugee and Migrant Services will talk about the end of the interpreter standards transition support programme on 1 July 2024, and the efforts being made to ensure both interpreters and the agencies providing interpreting services will be well supported through a longer-term sustainable programme of on-going quality improvement.


Linguists and the Law – an interactive workshop

Angelo Berbotto 


Linguists and the Law is an interactive workshop that I have taken around Australia (Melbourne, Hobart, Adelaide and Sydney so far) as AUSIT’s National President.  It deals with dilemmas  faced by practitioners in actual cases that eventually ended up in court (that is how I became aware of them).

The premise is that interpreters and translators have a professional and social responsibility.  The Law regulates so many aspects of our lives and language professionals  are no exception to this.  The 3 cases analysed deal with situations where interpreters had a lapse of professional judgment.

The interactive aspect of the  workshop means that there is a lot of participation and collective problem-solving.  The message of the workshop is that working ethically is by far the best option.   Working in isolation is risky and belonging to a professional community such as NZSTI offers a space to bounce ideas, grow professionally and being aware of the ethical choices  when working as a linguist.

The workshop is delivered using the platform (participants interact using their mobile phones) so internet and a pc with explorer, chrome or any other browser is needed and connection to an overhead projector.  If this is not possible, it can be delivered as a power point presentation but the interactive aspect will not be as good.


Adapting to Changing Client Needs: Navigating Evolving Expectations, Overcoming Challenges and Ensuring Successful Project Outcomes

Dr Fahim Afarinasadi, Allira Hanczakowsk, Haley Te Rire & Asma Said-Majeed


In today's rapidly evolving translation landscape, the ability to adapt to clients' changing needs is crucial for translation agencies to thrive. This panel discussion will delve into the multifaceted aspects of meeting evolving client requirements, addressing challenges, fostering open communication, and building harmonious relationships to ensure client satisfaction and successful project outcomes. One fundamental aspect we will explore is how we, as translators and project managers, respond to evolving client requirements and expectations. As client needs become increasingly dynamic, language service providers (LSPs) must proactively identify and anticipate these changes to provide tailored solutions. We will discuss strategies that enable us to align our services with shifting client demands, emphasising the importance of flexibility, agility, and continuous improvement. Building strong relationships with clients is another critical component of successful translation projects. We will explore effective communication techniques and discuss how open dialogue enables us to better understand client preferences and goals. By nurturing these relationships, we foster trust and collaboration, leading to enhanced client satisfaction and long-term partnerships. When clients seek advice on language choices, LSPs play a pivotal role in guiding them towards optimal solutions. We will share our experiences and best practices for providing language recommendations that align with clients' specific objectives, taking into account cultural nuances, target audience, and project requirements. This panel discussion will highlight the importance of balancing linguistic accuracy, cultural appropriateness, and client preferences to ensure effective communication. Additionally, emergency response projects require special attention and efficient management. We will discuss practises LSPs can employ to successfully handle urgent and time-sensitive assignments. From establishing robust project management frameworks to assembling dedicated teams, we will delve into the strategies that enable us to deliver high-quality translations within tight deadlines.


Interpreter pay rates in NZ: An interactive session & discussion

Carolina Cannard, Agustina Marianacci & Dr Alejandra González Campanella


In spite of their crucial role, interpreters in Aotearoa New Zealand have been consistently underpaid. The interpreting industry in New Zealand is at a turning point, with interpreters expected to constantly maintain and upgrade their skills, adapt to the needs of the industry, sit for tests, obtain relevant certifications (NAATI) and renew credentials. Nevertheless, their remuneration has broadly remained the same and, in many cases, it has even worsened over the years.

Interpreters are trained professionals who enable equitable access to public services to everyone in Aotearoa New Zealand. They provide a critical service to culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) individuals who would otherwise see their rights and entitlements curtailed. Current interpreter pay rates fail to account for the self- employed nature of the job, which requires professionals to cover their own taxes, levies, insurance, etc. Practices such as the elimination of minimum fees, for both onsite and phone interpreting, leave interpreters scrambling to find suitable compensation for their time and lead to precarious employment and professional exodus. In turn, the lack of interpreters leaves CALD communities without language and communication support during crucial events, such as medical interventions, health emergencies, court hearings and immigration/legal appointments.

This interactive session will be divided into 3 parts: a 20-minute presentation, followed by 20 minutes of group discussion and then 20 minutes for open dialogue amongst all session participants. Carolina Cannard’s fair pay petition for interpreters and national call for interpreter testimonies will be briefly introduced in the first block to shine some light on the matter. However, the focus of the session will be to stimulate a discussion among practitioners and other decision-makers involved. In groups, attendees will be invited to exchange insights relating to possible obstacles and solutions which will be fed back to the room. The aim will be to enable dialogue and collaboratively devise pathways that can be actioned in the future.


MBIE 60-min panel discussion

Panellists: Alison McDonald, Johnathon Hopgood and Quintin Ridgeway


Abstract available soon.

NAATI certification updates for interpreters

Michael Nemarich


Certification updates for interpreters is a practical insight and presentation about NAATI for those already practicing or looking to apply for certification. The presentation covers the number of languages tested in the  Certification System, how they're chosen, and at what levels, the purpose of recertification and a guide in how to meet the requirements without it being overwhelming, and a look at digital ID and stamps and how to get the most out of them.

When Language Falters: the Limits of Meaning in the Contexts of Intermediality and Translingualism

Dr Antonio Viselli


This presentation will look at two instances in which authors (poets and novelists) represent the limitation of language through its semiotics and poetics. The first context of discussion will be to examine a form of “translation” that stretches beyond language: the attempt to annul, destroy, or supplement language through the evocation of a distinct form of signification and artistic representation—music. I will demonstrate the various goals, and in multiple languages, of writers who have sought to suggest a musical style in language as a means to various ends. Translation, in this context, exists via intermediality: the overlapping and confusion of diverse mediatic forms, which confronts the seemingly incompatible dynamics of mimetic language and amimetic music.

The second example that I will explore is in reference to translingual writing, in other words, contexts in which writers either use multiple languages within their works; self-translate their writing; or choose to write in a language which uproots their individual identities (ie. exophonic writing). This presentation will question the translational strategies and consequences at play in both of these contexts, all the while questioning what is at stake when we attempt to translate these authors and works from one linguistic and cultural context to another. 

Ministry of Justice A New Quality Framework for Interpreters in Courts

Maree O’Regan & Reuben Lewthwaite


People who are involved in court proceedings need to understand what is happening and be able to understand and respond to questions they are asked. Interpreters play a fundamental role in our justice system, making sure everyone can meaningfully participate, whatever language they use. 

The Ministry of Justice has recently published the Interpreter Services Quality Framework to better support interpreters to deliver quality services in courts and tribunals. It covers everything from qualifications and training, to what should be interpreted in a court setting and how the service should be monitored over time. It’s a great resource for interpreters and others who work with them including judges, lawyers and court staff. Following the processes and standards it sets out will ensure proceedings are fair for everyone. 

Assuring good quality — Involvement of Lay-readers’ perspectives

Dr Wei Teng


In respect to lay reader’s responses to translation, I have developed and applied a set of assessment criteria in previous studies (Crezee, Teng, & Burn, 2017; Teng, 2019; Teng, Burn, & Crezee, 2018). My recent study (in press) also revealed rather conflicting opinions on translation quality between translators and lay readers. In particular, the lay readers often did not respond to a translation in the way that the translators expected the translation would have elicited. The lay readers are what community translation aims to serve; yet this fundamental role of theirs in assessing translation quality has not gained much attention, except in few (e.g. Taibi, Liamputtong & Polonsky, 2019). The findings I will present are a part of a New Zealand government funded project, which highlights lay readers’ conception of good quality translation and indicates the value of their conception in translator education. The project at the current stage has recruited a total of 5 professional translators and 20 lay readers (all native speakers of Mandarin Chinese) and selected 10 English texts aimed at the general public (5 healthcare and 5 legal services related). The English texts have been translated and revised by the translators, after being assessed by the lay-readers (by using the proposed set of assessment criteria). The translators have also engaged in an online survey and individually attend an interview regarding their opinions on the assessment criteria and lay readers’ feedback, showing different aspects in their opinions of good quality translation to the lay readers’.

Enhancing Video Interpreting Skills for On-Demand Telehealth in Diverse Settings

Despina Amanatidou


The advent of video interpreting has transformed the interpreter's role, creating new opportunities and challenges. This presentation explores interpreting technologies training, specifically video interpreting training, as a means to differentiate oneself as an interpreter in today's professional environment.

In this presentation, we explore how the landscape has changed for interpreters with the rise of AI and how interpreters can use technology training and tools to their best advantage. Presenters will discuss methodologies for providing specialised interpreter training, drawing on healthcare as a contextual example in meeting on-demand requests.

Video interpreting training empowers interpreters to adapt their linguistic and cultural competencies to the digital environment. However, a common challenge for training is providing situated learning scenarios to prepare interpreters for the complexities that come with video interpreting.

Presenters will share outcomes of training initiatives designed to coach interpreters on understanding the nuances of video training, managing virtual interactions and turn-taking, using Australia and New Zealand’s first professional development training platform, 2M Academy, and the 2M lingo™ platform in virtual care solution, Coviu, as examples for how training was conducted.

For interpreters, undertaking technology training not only sets them apart from other practitioners, but also demonstrates a commitment to servicing the evolving needs of clients and service providers. Proficiency in interpreting technologies, specifically video interpreting, positions interpreters as innovative and adaptable professionals in an increasingly competitive market.

This presentation will discuss best practices, learnings and considerations for video interpreting training specifically for fulfilling urgent telehealth requests. Lastly, how video interpreting skills can give interpreters a competitive edge leading to enhanced professional opportunities, positive client feedback, and career growth.

Future Translators and Interpreters: Will our education system enable them?

Crystelle Jones


Our government’s investment in funding interpreters to get NAATI certified points to a projected trend of increased demand for their services in this country. While expats are essential to our pool of translators and interpreters, we also need to have NZ-educated professionals, but where are they going to come from? My research in 2012 concluded that only about 1 in 17 students were graduating from high school with NCEA level 3 qualifications in foreign/international languages, a similar figure to research years before that, despite “Learning Languages” becoming a curriculum area in its own right, and a Ministry push to get languages taught at intermediate (Year 7-8) level. Since then, languages have continued to have to battle for survival at secondary schools and tertiary institutions in the face of expansion of subjects offered, and students looking for “easy” NCEA credits.
As well as creating future translators and interpreters, language learning creates harmony, by enabling students to understand the value of becoming competent in an additional language, and an appreciation of cultural diversity. However, the low levels of foreign/international language proficiency being achieved by students present a serious challenge to the supply of expertise in our profession. 

In this presentation I will present statistics related to language learning in New Zealand schools and university and information about which languages are taught. We will also explore the barriers to students choosing to study languages, and suggest actions we can take as a profession to remedy the situation. Issues such as the acceleration of technology such as Artificial Intelligence, and the impact of the pandemic and climate change on global travel will also be discussed in terms of their relevance to the context.

Interpreters in mental health settings

Anna Guo


Interpreters in mental health settings face many unique challenges, mainly due to the complexity of psychiatric terminology, the delicacy of the situations they translate, and the need for an intricate understanding of cultural differences. However, the post-pandemic era places interpreters in more demanding and vulnerable positions as they may respond to overwhelming cases while critical events could affect interpreters’ own mental well-being. This presentation discusses difficulties and challenges based on real-life scenarios and occasions encountered in mental health interpreting, arguing that interpreters shall develop skills and competence beyond linguistic and cultural capability.  

Localization of Mobile Applications: A Case Study of Binance for the Iranian Market

Dr Fahim Afarinasadi


The internet has emerged as a key driver of global economic growth, making significant contributions across various sectors. Within the United States, it stands as one of the largest sectors, generating millions of jobs and contributing trillions of dollars to the GDP. A noteworthy aspect of this digital revolution is the rapid growth of cryptocurrencies, which surpassed $100 million in market capitalization in 2017. Cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin and Ethereum serve as digital assets, enabling users to engage in decentralized transactions, payments, and investments. However, little attention has been given to the intersection between cryptocurrencies and translation. This presentation explores the convergence of cryptocurrency and translation in various domains. With traders, miners, and investors from around the world participating in the cryptocurrency market, there is no central authority determining the value of these digital assets. Consequently, translators play a vital role in localizing, translating, and copywriting within this globalized industry. Given the borderless nature of cryptocurrencies and the need for global accessibility, localization becomes crucial for cryptocurrency platforms and mobile applications. The primary objective of this presentation is to deliver a localized version of the Binance mobile application in Persian, utilizing the Afarinasadi (2021) localization framework. The research examines both theoretical and practical aspects of the localization process, shedding light on potential challenges and their resolution. The critical steps involve analysing the mobile application and identifying potential localization hurdles. Through the implementation of effective localization strategies, this research successfully navigates the localization process for the Binance mobile application. By investigating the intersection of cryptocurrencies and translation, this research contributes to the understanding of the localization requirements specific to the cryptocurrency industry. The findings underscore the importance of adapting mobile applications to diverse linguistic and cultural contexts, enabling global accessibility for cryptocurrency users. 

Singable Translations of Songs

Dr Peter Low


Translating for people to read or speak is easy compared with translating for singers to sing. While one still cares about the meaning of the ST and the naturalness of the TL, one also faces problems of rhythm, rhyme and physical singability. One should seek to score well on all those five criteria. Although a perfect result is impossible, an optimal one must still retain what really counts, all the significant features of the source. Inferior song-translations exist, of course. Some errors lose many points: for example tongue-twisters (lack of singability), howlers (meaning), archaisms (naturalness), false stress (rhythm), and far-fetched rhyme. The objective here is to really translate. Merely adapting a song is easier to do, because one can alter the details and intent of the song. And "replacement texts" involve no translating at all - they use a song's tune while ignoring the words.

In this talk a discussion of names (when can they be changed?) leads into a more general discussion of flexibility. Which details are "slippable"? Which are the acceptable imperfections that don't lose many points?

The object of this strategy is to enable the new text to do in the TL what the song did the SL. The main point of the song needs to come across to its new target audience. This talk will also serve as an introduction to the entertainment later in the afternoon: "Songs Sung in Singable Translations".

Tailor-made communications. Dos and do’s of a professional life of a full-time translator

Christof Schneider


Abstract available shortly.

Language of horses. Overcoming Challenges and Changing Lives

Philippa Parker


Abstract available shortly.

Songs sung in Singable Translations

Peter Low with Kimberley Wood, Yumeka Hildreth & Matthew Harris


Translated from French:

  • Bruxelles - Brussels Jacques Brel
  • Fernand - Funeral  Jacques Brel
  • O quand je dors - Oh when I sleep Victor Hugo / Franz Liszt
  • Ballade des gros dindons  - The Plump Turkeys Edmond Rostand / Emmanuel Chabrier
  • A Chloris - If it's true Théophile de Viau / Reynaldo Hahn
  • Si tu le veux - If you are willing Maurice de Marsan / Charles Koechlin
  • Marquise Corneille / Georges Brassens

Translated from German:

  • Die Nacht - Night Hermann von Gilm / Richard Strauss
  • Allerseelen - All Souls' Day  Hermann von Gilm / Richard Strauss
  • Verschwiegene Liebe  - Silent Love Eichendorff / Hugo Wolf
  • Ein Mann Columbus - Columbus Anon
  • Sapphische Ode - Roses I plucked Joseph von Schmidt / Johannes Brahms

Translated from Spanish:

  • El Café de Chinitas Anon, ed. Federico García Lorca

Translated from Portuguese (by Low & Meller):

  • São Coisas Nossas Noel Rosa
    Nuvem Que Passou Noel Rosa

Translated from Italian:

  • Ecco di dolci raggi Anon / Monteverdi

Interpreter/Translator role as a cross-cultural specialist

Lu Hunter


As interpreters/translators, we know that often our job is not as simple as converting the message from one language to another robotically, in effect, we are cross-cultural communication specialists who help people truly understand one another as if there is no culturally ideological barrier. This is because language is the product of a cultural group, and behind the linguistic differences lies the cultural differences.

Since there are different social rules and norms in each culture, therefore the goal for cross-cultural communication is to have the participants on the same page by mitigating the elements that are foreign to them in the communication. In a sense, this is about overcoming cross-cultural challenges and creating harmony in the process and at the end. This entails taking a human-centric and purpose-driven approach.

What does that mean? And how do we navigate the cross-cultural conversations where we help the parties achieve their communication goals - to effectively understand where each other is coming from, not just on the surface level. This is especially essential in a commercial setting, where big-ticket purchasing decisions are made at the result of the communication. How to help your client achieve a smooth negotiation by minimising the foreignness of the content communicated? I will share my experience on these aspects in this presentation and look forward to having a discussion with the fellow interpreters/translators

Reo Māori, Pākehā Voices: Working as manuhiri in te ao Māori

Melanie Nelson


Te reo Māori, the indigenous language of Aotearoa New Zealand, is intricately connected to these islands and their peoples. Pākehā comprise a small proportion of speakers of te reo Māori, but have a significant effect on the language as they comprise the majority of the wider population. The Pākehā experience of learning te reo Māori, working with it and being manuhiri (visitors) in te ao Māori (the Māori world) offers insights of possible approaches for working respectfully with minority languages when the translator/interpreter is not a member of that grouping.

This presentation draws on the presenter’s personal experience over 30 years as a Pākehā speaker of te reo. It also draws on her research, published by Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori, on other fluent Pākehā speakers, the challenges that arise for them, the ways they have found to navigate those challenges, and the value of te reo Māori for them.
The presenter and the research participants have found ways to carry our colonial past, our complicated present, and our aspirations for the future, through their words and their actions. Their experiences can help to inform us about the multitude of challenges and advantages involved in becoming bilingual Pākehā citizens of Aotearoa New Zealand, and the benefits that has for appreciating cultural diversity and valuing different ways of thinking and viewing the world. 

The internal and external challenges that arise relate predominantly to the context of colonisation, the dearth of education about our history, language loss, lack of societal support for the language, and personal identity, particularly in relationship to the language, including working with it professionally. 

The presenter and the research participants had independently developed very analogous detailed internal processes for determining appropriate behaviour as manuhiri of te reo. These ethical practices guide them to navigate challenges and adapt to complex situations, while being cognisant of power dynamics, their roles and appropriate boundaries, and maintaining their own authenticity. 

The fragile ecosystem of community interpreting in Australia and New Zealand

Tim Hood


In contemplating the delicate ecosystem that underpins community interpreting, Tim will delve into some of the primary challenges confronting the sector. He will also share his firsthand observations of witnessing the decline of one of the region's largest service providers, Ezispeak, and the remarkable journey of establishing a new Language Services Provider in a post-pandemic world. Tim's presentation will encompass the intricate dynamics necessary to meet the rising demand and evolving diversity of language services. Furthermore, he will analyse the distinct roles and varied challenges encountered by Interpreters, Language Service Providers, and Service Consumers in delivering support to multicultural communities.

This analysis will also explore the interconnected relationships within this ecosystem and the pressures and opportunities stemming from external factors like globalization, technological advancements, and regulatory changes. 

Translating opera libretti for university music students

Dr Francis Yapp


Many students studying music at university first experience opera without having knowledge of the original languages (Italian, German, or French) of the libretti. As a result, they are heavily reliant on translations to gain a full understanding of the art form. The quality and type of translation available can vastly impact their appreciation of the art form. In this paper, I explore the strengths and weaknesses of the prevalent types of translation commonly available (translations for singing, literary parallel translations) and suggest a new approach to translation of libretti which takes into account both digital technology and innovative methods of language learning. 

While the immediate focus of this paper is on university music students, the approach to translation proposed here will be relevant to opera companies, audiences listening to both recorded and live performances, and professional and amateur singers. 

Language of Life - Interpreting in the New Zealand maternity setting

Dr Lucía Alonso González


If navigating healthcare in a foreign country is already a daunting experience, being pregnant and having a baby in a completely different system, far from your trusted network of family and friends, can be a terrifying prospect. Interpreters are taught to be impartial facilitators of precise and accurate communication, expected to remain emotionally detached. Interpreting in the maternity setting, however, often challenges this concept: it compels interpreters to confront and even reconsider their values, beliefs and professional ethics; can make traumatic memories and experiences resurface; and may test what it means to be an interpreter and a human being during one of the most significant events in the life of a woman and her family.

As a midwife and a medical interpreter, I will guide you through the complexities of interpreting in the maternity setting in Aotearoa New Zealand. I will provide you with tools to be mentally prepared and make important decisions regarding your responses to various expected and unexpected situations that may arise during your work. And I will share some of the tears and joys that come with working in one of the most emotional, fulfilling and rewarding areas of healthcare.

Jazz music as a waka for te reo Māori

Lisa Davies


Jazz music as a waka for te reo Māori revitalisation.

This presentation will focus on my current Master’s research of translations of jazz standards into te reo Māori. A key component of this research is the language of te reo Māori that is used within mōteatea. Apirana Ngata’s collection of mōteatea are a rich and beautiful body of literature. They communicate and commemorate for Māori our histories, whakapapa, love stories, births, events and sorrows. The language within mōteatea is equally as rich as the stories and songs themselves. I have specifically focused my kaupapa on waiata whaiāipo and waiata aroha (love songs) and how the language within these types of mōteatea can be applied to translations of jazz standards today. I will discuss translation techniques and considerations for translating song, and how I apply my research not only within translations, but also in performance. This includes performances with my Māori jazz band to help contribute to the revitalisation of te reo Māori and wellbeing of our people.

The issue of trust in interpreting

Epperly Zhang


This presentation will address the issue of trust in interpreting. An interpreter-mediated encounter is a cross-cultural communicative event where communication is more than the mere transfer of words from one party to the other; it takes into account purpose, context, tone, and power relations. In any social interaction, but especially an interpreter-facilitated interaction, trust becomes essential to how people communicate, and whether successful communication is achieved. Notwithstanding its importance, trust, as a social phenomenon, is overlooked in the interpreting studies. In the interpreting literature, trust is often associated with professionalism and adherence to code of ethics and conduct; however, there is little empirical evidence for such an association. This presentation will define and identify what builds trust in the community interpreting setting – more specifically, Chinese-language community interpreting in the Australian context. This presentation’s research rests on a theoretical framework of trust that was built using the broad trust literature in the social sciences, as well as data collected through interviews with community interpreters and interlocutory parties in community settings. Conceptually, trust is categorised into cognitive trust and affective trust. The research findings highlight that the interpreter’s competence plays a central role in establishing cognitive trust in community interpreting settings. Additionally, the interpreter’s demonstration of empathy, care and sincerity is crucial for fostering affective trust.

Health information dissemination during a pandemic: A Case study of Vietnamese translations in Australia and USA

Lan Hoang


Language rights are human rights (UNOCHA, 2020). This was never demonstrated more clearly than during the COVID-19 pandemic, when put the spotlight on a number of different challenges (Zhang & Wu, 2020). There are efforts by countries with cultural diversity such as New Zealand, Australia and United States of America. While in New Zealand, a current book chapter (Wong Soon et al., forthcoming) in this topic shows mistranslations and a few potential inappropriate translations in Vietnamese language, the questions as to whether the translations make better (or worse) sense to the readers from their perspectives, and were effectively disseminated among minority language communities, or did the government follow a ‘one size fits all’ approach, were left. This study thus examines translations from English into Vietnamese as a heritage language in Australia and the United States, with a focus on identifying mistranslations and cultural inappropriateness. The research involves the construction of two data sets: The Vietnamese COVID-19 texts in Vietnam, and the English COVID-19 texts translated into Vietnamese in Australia and in the United States of America. These texts, including pamphlets and public health websites, will be analyzed for wording, style, and structure. Furthermore, an analysis of policy on healthcare translation in Australia and United States of America will be conducted to explore its impact on translation quality. By uncovering translation failures and considering historical and cultural issues between Vietnamese language use abroad and in Vietnam, this study aims to contribute to the improvement of COVID-19 health translations. The research method combines textual and policy analysis to provide a preliminary understanding of the translation quality and address the challenges in achieving accurate and culturally appropriate COVID-19 health translations. Through this approach, the study seeks to enhance communication and promote health literacy among Vietnamese-speaking populations in multicultural societies. Ultimately, the research outcomes will contribute to effective public health communication strategies and facilitate equitable access to vital COVID-19 information for Vietnamese-speaking communities (Hale, 2014).

Reimagining the Landscape of Simultaneous Interpreting: A Paralinguistic Approach

Wladimir Padilla


Challenges, an appalling and appealing word.

In this introspective discourse I shall delve into my experiences and epiphanies while navigating the intricate landscape of simultaneous interpreting in Aotearoa. In this short abstract, my aim is to further describe the challenges I got to break down along the different assignments when interpreting simultaneously. Firstly, I will briefly explain the similarity of challenges both musicians and simultaneous interpreters share, as even if they operate in distinct spheres, they confront remarkably similar challenges in their respective fields; secondly, I will briefly explain the “Plant Analogy” approach applied to simultaneous interpreting training in Aotearoa in order to thoroughly understand and maximise knowledge acquisition - also, how to make our alleged enemy, our ally: artificial intelligence; finally, I would like to dive into the power of voice inflection when rendering someone else’s words, and considering most interpreters do not have a performing arts background, I would like to raise the question: how biased is the interpretation of the charisma of the character – a.k.a. speaker?

Bringing Quality Improvement into Focus for Agencies using Professional Interpreters

Dr Ben Gray


Dr Gray is working on a strong quality improvement framework that will support Public Sector Agencies and Service Providers who receive public funding to be able to work effectively with professional interpreters. This work complements the efforts by interpreters who are working to become credentialled. This has required Dr Gray to address some interesting challenges including:
  • When does a service provider need to use a professionally credentialled interpreter?
  • How we manage bilingual staff; should they be regulated and if not what are the boundaries to the work that they do?
  • Machine translation is developing rapidly. What is its place in providing Language assistance?
  • There is an important role for health navigators, how might such a role be merged with the role of interpreter?
  • How do we support providers collecting and using the data needed to maintain a high quality interpreting service?
  • How do we manage complaints and accountability?

Creating Harmonies in the Translations from English into the Tongan Language

Dr Telesia Kalavite


In the translation process there are always challenges to overcome in order to create harmonies between the two languages which may include a bit of research by the translator throughout the process. In Tonga there are not many English books that are translated into the the Tongan language. The early translations of English books into Tongan, including the bible, were done by foreign missioneries when they came to Tonga in the 19th century, around the1820’s. The few Tongan translators of English books are only something that started in the late 20th century, around the 1960’s. Professionally, I had no formal qualification in linguistics or translation apart from being an experienced Tongan teacher, fluent in both English and Tongan with a PhD qulification in Pacific Education. However,  I was asked to translate two children classics (English and French respectively); Alice in Wonderland by Lewis Carrol published in 1865, and The Little Prince by Antoine de Saint-Exupery published in 1943. My translations of the Tongan versions of these books were published in 2014 and 2018. This presentation is firstly, about the background of the two book translation projects. Secondly, my experiences from the translation process in terms of the challenges as well as the learnings that I had in the process. Thirdly, the vital role that I played in reconciling the differences in the European and Tongan cultures which shapes both the English and Tongan peoples’ views, values, behaviours and worries, as well as their hopes and dreams at the time of the setting of the stories. Fourthly, the benefits that I have after publishing these children’s classics. Lastly, my views on the current and future translation space for the Tongan language. 

Putting the I back in Ethics

Erwin La Cruz


In this presentation, I will discuss the importance of including three moral spaces when discussing professional ethics for interpreters: the institutional, the client's and the personal moral spaces. I will review how the professionalisation of the interpreter role has excluded the interpreter’s personal space and focused on the institutional (conduit model), more recently on the interpersonal (allied model).

A common approach when discussing ethics for interpreters is to present an ethical dilemma as a problem of choosing between the right and wrong action. Ethical deliberation is reduced to selecting between binary choices: Action A follows an ethical principle, whereas action B does not. Action A is then right, professional and ethical, while Action B wrong, unprofessional, and unethical. This approach to discerning ethical dilemmas excludes the personal space.

Excluding the personal space perspective follows the tradition of deontological and utilitarian ethical approaches which present moral questions as a dual choice between duty and desire. However, in actual interpreting jobs, the challenge for interpreters is not to discard the wrong action, but to select one out of many possible right actions. In the community services setting, the moral space interpreters navegate is much complex, and not limited binary choices. In fact, the right course of action is informed by the demands of the three moral, normative spaces the interpreter must navigate: the institutional space, the client’s space, and the personal space.

Based on NZSTI’s Code of Ethics and Conduct (the standard for interpreter training and supervision in NZ), I will discuss how recognising the personal space, that is the interpreter as a valid moral agent, is necessary to achieve better professional and personal ethical decisions.

Modern New Zealand And How Interpreters Can Evolve With It

Ella Addenbrooke


Over the past decade there has been a social movement in Aotearoa New Zealand aimed at normalising the everyday use of te reo Māori, and embedding mātauranga Māori at the heart of how we do things as a nation.

This presentation examines the prevalence of Māori language and culture across a variety of sectors, ranging from corporate New Zealand to how we represent and market ourselves on a global stage. We will then delve into the implications of this evolving landscape for interpreters of all languages working in Aotearoa New Zealand. 



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